20 marzo 2017

PERFECT MODAL VERBS

PERFECT MODAL VERBS

must have: conclusión lógica
-Anna failed the exam. She must not have been paying attention in class. (Anna suspendió el examen. No debió haber estado atenta en la clase.)

may have/might have: posibilidad, incertidumbre
-They might have won if their star player hadn’t been injured. (Ellos podrían haber ganado si su mejor jugador no se hubiera lesionado.)

should have: algo no ocurrió pero hubiera sido mejor si hubiera ocurrido
-I told you, you should have studied more! (Te lo dije, deberías haber estudiado más.)

could have: posibilidad en el pasado/algo era posible en el pasado pero no pasó.
-She could have run faster, but she wanted to save her energy. (Ella podría haber corrido más rápido, pero quería ahorrar energía.)

couldn't have/can't have: es bastante seguro que algo no ocurrió en el pasado.
-They had a lot of work to do and little time. They couldn’t have finished everything. (Tenían mucho trabajo que hacer y poco tiempo. No podrían haber terminado todo.)


exercises to practise


- Mireia

09 marzo 2017

Very common errors Spanish speakers make in English

Very common errors Spanish speakers make in English

English is the international language in our planet. For the first time in human history there are so many people that can communicate and connect without interpreters or dictionaries!

 More than 2 billion people from all around the world are currently learning English. The mistakes we are making while learning a new language are not only inevitable but actually from a really necessary  part in the learning process. The mistakes are the indicators of progress not only in language learning but in all kinds of learning. One of the most repetitive kinds of mistakes in language learning are the mistakes that are based in our mother tongue. 

 The Spanish language is spoken in 21 countries by more than 500 million people many of whom are trying to learn English. Scientists have found out that the majority of the Spanish speaking learners of English very often make the same mistakes no matter of their country of origin or socio-cultural background. These mistakes are often based on the differences between the structure of the two languages.

Here are some of the most common types of mistakes that Spanish speakers make in English.

Adjective-Noun order

Adjective placement is a common source of mistakes for beginning Spanish speakers.
In English, adjectives come before the noun: big car, blue shirt, Greek yogurt. In Spanish, however, adjectives often come after the noun: coche grande, camiseta azul, yogur griego.

There are certain instances where the adjective does come before the noun in Spanish, but in the majority of the cases, it comes after.  Here are a few more examples to see the difference between Spanish and English.

un hijo inteligente  (a smart son)
la noche tranquila  (the calm night)
el vaso vacío  (the empty glass)

So that is the general rule

However, typical descriptive adjectives almost always go before the nouns they modify, unless they are intended to convey a more subjective or poetic quality.
Adjectives that come before the noun

1. Non-descriptive adjectives; many of these are grammatically adjectives, though they are sometimes referred to as "determiners," "possessive pronouns," etc.
Examples:
Muchas casas [many houses]
Tu abuela [your grandmother]
Siete mesas [seven tables]

2. Meaning-changing adjectives; these adjectives can be used both before or after the noun, When used before the noun, they convey a meaning that is more subjective.
Examples:
mi vieja amiga[my old (long-time) friend] is based on the speaker's perception of their relationship
 mi amiga vieja [my old (elderly) friend] 
is based on the fact of the friend's age un gran hombre [a great man] 
is based on someone's evaluation of the man's character un hombre grande [a big man]
 is based on the man's objective size

3. Adjectives of appreciation; this is a special case where you can show an increased emphasis by placing an adjective before the noun they modify.
Example:
Es un profesor bueno [he's a good teacher] 
Es un buen professor [he's an extremely good teacher]

4. Adjectives reinforcing the meaning of the noun; often these convey an increased drama, emotionality, or poeticism. 
Examples:
La Hermosa vista [the beautiful view]
La blanca nieve [the white snow]
La interminable tortura [the unending torture]